How to Cite using AMA


  • Printable AMA Citation Style  (PDF format) 

    This guide provides examples of the AMA style as found in the American Medical Association manual of style, 9th edition.  (REF Closed R119.A533 1998). 

    Works Cited Listing

    AMA style requires that works cited should appear in a consecutively numbered list at the end of your research paper or report, using Arabic numerals. The numbers should coincide with the order in which the references appear in the text. Single spacing is preferred.

    Books

    A basic book reference must contain all of the following:

    Author(s). Book Title. Place of publication:  publisher; year: inclusive page numbers.

    Single Author

    Fitzgerald PA. Handbook of Clinical Endocrinology. 2nd ed. Norwalk, Conn:  Appleton & Lange; 1992.

    Two to Six Authors          (All authors up to six must be listed.)

    Bradford DS, Lonstein JE, Moe JH, Ogilvie JW, Winter RB. Moe’s Textbook of SCOLIOSIS and Other Spinal Deformities. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa:  W.B. Saunders Company; 1987.

    More than Six Authors     (If more than six authors, list the first three followed by “et al.”)

    Cunningham FG, MacDonald PC, Gant NF, et al. Williams Obstetrics. 20th ed. Stamford, Conn:  Appleton & Lange; 1997.

    Editor

    Brotzman SB, ed. Handbook of Orthopaedic Rehabilitation. St. Louis, Mo:  Mosby; 1996.

    Book Chapter

    Johnson LN, Daniels OCB. The true beneficiaries of affirmative action. In: Breaking the Color Line in Medicine: African Americans in Ophthalmology. Thorofare, NJ:  SLACK Incorporated; 2002:49-51.

    Articles

    A basic journal reference must contain all of the following:

    Author(s). Article title. Journal Name.  Year; volume: inclusive page numbers.

    Single Author

    Reinhart JB. A tale of two pediatricians. Pediatrics.  2003;112:1166-1168.

    Two to Six Authors             (All authors up to six must be listed.)

    Mehl ML, Kyles AE.  Ureteroureterostomy after proximal ureteric injury during an ovariohysterectomy in a dog. Veterinary Record.  2003;153:469-470.

    More than Six Authors       (If more than six authors, list the first three followed by “et al.”)

    Barzilai N, Atzmon G, Schechter C, et al. Unique lipoprotein phenotype and genotype associated with exceptional longevity. JAMA.  2003;290:2030-2040.

    Supplements

    Novick LF, ed. New York State HIV seroprevalence project. American Journal of Public Health.  1991;81(suppl):3-63.

    Committee or Other Group (no named author)

    The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia. World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Research, Training, and Eradication of Dracunculiasis, Div of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Progress toward global eradication of dracunculiasis, January-June 2003.  JAMA.  2003;290:1986-1987.

    Newspapers

    Gates D. Fewer doctors for Shore? Daily Times (Salisbury, MD). November 4, 2003:1.

    Monographic Series

    Schaumburg HH, Berger AR, Thomas PK. Disorders of Peripheral Nerves. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis; 1992.  Contemporary Neurology Series, No. 36.

    Internet/Electronic Texts

    Online Journals with Volume/Page Information (E-Journals) 

    Myers JB, Riemann BL, Hwang J-H, Fu FH, Lephart SM. Effect of peripheral afferent alteration of the lateral ankle ligaments on dynamic stability. Am J Sports Med [serial online]. 2003;31:498-506. Available from: American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, Rosemont, Ill. Accessed November 4, 2003.

    Meenan AL. Eating disorders: lifestyle choice or clinical problem? Am Fam Physician [serial online].  2003;68:41. Available from EBSCO Publishing, Ipswich, Mass.  Accessed November 5, 2003.

    Online Journals without Volume/Page Information (E-Journals)

    Boost your immunity during cold season. Alternative Medicine [serial online]. January 2002;issue 45.

    Online Books (E-Books)

    Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Resources: The Role of the National Library of Medicine [book online]. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.; 2003. Based on: Liverman CT. Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Resources: The Role of the National Library of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academies Press;1997. netLibrary.

    World Wide Web

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  FDA and CDC statement concerning rumors about recalled lot of influenza vaccine. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/.  Accessed November 4, 2003.

    In-text Parenthetical Citations

    AMA Style is very restrictive in the use of references given within the text.  Parenthetical citation of sources which meet the criteria for inclusion in a reference list should be used only in news columns and obituaries, which do not require reference lists. Please note that authors are not named, the title of the article is not given, inclusive page numbers are given.  If the journal title is abbreviated it should always be enclosed in parentheses.  If it is not abbreviated, it does not have to be in parentheses.

    (Am J Psychiatry.  1995;152:626-628).

    … as reported in the American Journal of Psychiatry (1995;152:626-628).

    E-mail should always be included parenthetically in the text.  Three elements must be included:

    1.  name of person sending the message
    2.  sender’s e-mail address
    3.  date message was sent

    Please send your submissions to mczimmerman@crabedit.mla for the winter issue of the newsletter (M.C. Zimmerman, [mczimmerman@umes.edu], e-mail, November 5, 2003).

    Personal communications are another form of information not suitable for inclusion in a reference list, and which therefore must be cited parenthetically:

     In a conversation with Dr. Shields (September 2003) …

     Dr. Dadson personally thanked Mrs. Hedreen for teaching his agriculture class (written communication, September 2003).

     For additional assistance please consult a Reference Librarian.

    updated 2/17/2009