How to Cite using APA


  • **UPDATED TO REFLECT CHANGES IN NEW 6TH EDITION**
    Printable APA Citation Style   (PDF format)

    This guide provides examples of the APA style as found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th edition. 2010.

    APA is used as a guide for subjects such as psychology, business, mathematics, computer science, construction management.

    The APA style has been updated to reflect the use of electronic/online resources.

    Works Cited Listing

    The APA style is an alphabetic listing of sources used in your term paper or report. Each entry includes the following: author, year of publication, title, and publishing data. Each entry must be double-spaced and have a hanging indent.

    Books

    Book documentation may contain some or all of the following elements: Author(s) or Editor(s), Date of publication, Chapter Title, Book title (Italicized), Page Numbers, and Publication Information.

    Single Author

    Dansky, S. (1997). Nobody’s children: Orphans of the HIV epidemic. New York: Harrington Park Press.

    Two to Seven Authors

    Invert all authors’ last names and initials. Complete the entry as for any other book or journal.

    Koss-Chionino, J.D., & Vargas, L.A. (1999). Working with Latino youth: Culture, development and

    context. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Eight or more authors

    If a book contains eight or more authors, list the first six (6) authors’ as indicated in the example above for two to seven authors, then insert three ( 3) ellipsis points (…), and then add the last author’s name.

    Editor

    Ayers, W., Dohrn, B., & Ayers, R. (Eds.). (2001). Zero tolerance: Resisting the drive for punishment in

    our schools: A handbook for parents, students, educators, and citizens. New York: New Press.

    Society, Institution, or Association as author

    American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological

    Association (5th ed.).  Washington, DC: Author.

    Book Chapter

    O’Neil J.M. & Egan, J. (1992). Men’s and women’s gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing,

    transition, and transformation. In B.R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle

    (pp.107-123). New York: Springer.

    Articles found in Print

    Article documentation may contain any or all of the following elements: Author(s), Date of Publication, Article Title, Periodical Title, and Publication Information.

    Scholarly Journal

    Light, M.A. & Light, I.H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States

    and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1),

    73-82.

    Magazine article

    Faigman, L. (2002, July 19). Is science different for lawyers? Science297, 339-40.

    Daily Newspaper Article, with Author

    Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post,

    pp. A1, A4.

    Daily Newspaper Article, No Author

    Ex-FBI agent sentenced for tipping off mobsters. (2002, September 17). The Washington Post, p. A2.

    Internet/Electronic Texts

    When documenting internet/electronic resources, the new edition of the APA Style Manual prefers the use of the DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The DOI is: a persistent unique code used to identify and retrieve a specific publication on the Internet, usually a journal article, web document, or other item of intellectual property.

    Eventually all electronic resources will have a DOI number. To see if an article has a DOI number, go to the following website and enter as much information in as possible about the article: http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/.

    Article found in one of the library’s Databases

    If the article contains the DOI number, then this should be used. If no DOI number if present, then you can either use the name of the database and the accession number or the URL of the homepage of the journal.

    The DOI number may or may not be listed in the library database. The DOI number, if an article has one, should always be found on the article itself.

    Article with DOI number:

    Hinduja, S. (2008). Deindividuation and Internet Software Piracy. CyberPsychology & Behavior11(4),

    391-398. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0048

    Article without DOI number and listing information about the database the article is found in:

    Smith G. (Summer 2002). The literary equivalent of a Big Mac and fries? Academics, moralists, and

    the Stephen King phenomenon. Midwest Quarterly43: p.329-45. Retrieved from Academic

    Search Premier database (Accession no.7024956).

    Article without DOI number and listing the homepage URL of the journal:

    Milstein, A., & Darling, H. (2010). Perennial Grains: Food Security for the Future. Issues in Science &

    Technology26(2), 41-47. Retrieved from http://www.issues.org/

    Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary

    Arctic. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-

    webster.com/dictionary/arctic

    Article in an Online Periodical or Magazine—not retrieved from a library database

    If the article contains a DOI number, then this should be used. If no DOI number is present, then use the full URL of the article or the URL of the homepage of the online periodical.

    With DOI number:

    Kraizberg, E. & Teall, J.L. (2009). The distribution and valuation of corporate control. The Open

    Business Journal, 2: 28-42. doi: 10.2174/1874915100902010028

    With no DOI number:

    Wace, P. & Condron, F. (September 2002). The Internet, images and archaeology: Ideas for interactive

    tutorials.  Internet Archaeology12. Retrieved from http://intarch.a.cuk/journal/issue12/wace-

    condron_toc.html

    Electronic Book (E-Book)

    Blau, Eve. (1997). Architecture and cubism. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

    Entire Website (but not a specific page on that website)

    When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text.

    Example:

    MedlinePlus’ Children’s Page is a wonderful interactive website for children ( http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childrenspage.html).

    Specific Page on a Website

    When citing a specific page on a website, if there is an author make sure to include it. If no author is present then the title of the page comes first.

    Bassett Hall. (2010). Retrieved January 31, 2010, from

    http://www.history.org/history/museums/bassett_hall.cfm

    Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: ("Bassett Hall," 2010).

    Daily Newspaper Article Retrieved on the Internet

    Semple, K. (2003, October 7). Voters line up in California to decide whether to recall Davis. The New

    York Times.  Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

    Government Documents

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on

    Aging. (2009). 2008 Progress report on Alzheimer’s Disease: moving discovery forward.

    Retrieved from http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/324E10CB-0E01-46F0-AE85-

    D2E8A5D53D27/0/NIA_2008_ProgressRpt_1.pdf

    Internet Message Boards, Electronic Mailing Lists and Other Online Communities

    When the full name of the author of a blog post, newsgroup post or electronic mailing list is provided you should use this in your citation. If only a screen name is provided, then use the screen name as the author.

    After the title of the post in brackets place the type of post it is (example Web log post, Electronic Mailing list message, or Online forum content.) Do not italicize the title of the subject line of the message.

    Blog Posts

    Gerry (2010, January 15). NLM announces mobile MedlinePlus. [Web log post]. Retrieved from

    http://mobilelibraries.blogspot.com/2010/01/nlm-announces-mobile-medlineplus.html

    Podcast

    National Public Radio (NPR). (Producer). (2010, January 28). It’s all politics [Audio podcast]. Retrieved

    from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=111854594

    In-text Parenthetical Citations

    Parenthetical references direct the reader to a specific page in a book, journal, or other source. They increase the validity of your work, by informing the reader of sources you have drawn upon whether you are paraphrasing or including a direct quote. The APA format keys parenthetical citations to the references which appear at the end of your paper.

    Parenthetical Reference Rules

    1. When making an in-text reference, a comma must be placed between the author’s name and the date of the publication.

    One marketing study (Smith, 2002) shows the need to focus on users, clients and customers.

    2. Do not include the author’s name and date if they are listed in text from which you are quoting.

    In Smith’s 2002 marketing study…

    3. References at the end of a sentence go inside the last punctuation mark.

    The marketing model in the digital age focuses on the type of customer (Smith, 2002).

    4. With a direct quotation include the page number, the author’s last name and the date of publication.

    Many businessmen have found that “the real value of marketing is to ensure the survival and growth of the company” (Smith, 2002, p. 52).

    5. The first time you make a parenthetical reference from a work with two to five authors, all of the author’s last names must be used. If you make a reference to the work in another part of your paper, you may put the last name of the first author followed by et al.

    Portfolio management (Smith, Jones & Black, 2002) is recommended as an effective tool in the management of people.

    There are many models of portfolio management (Smith et al., 2002).

    6. For electronic sources which do not have a page number, list the paragraph number.

    Field trials for cocker spaniels began in the United States in 1924 (American Kennel Club, 1992, para. 5).

    7. If you have two different authors with the same last name, you must include the first initial of the author’s first name within the parentheses.

    Marketing strategies are used by people from all walks of life from the President to the grocery stores to sports stars (A. Green, 2003).

    8. Personal letters, telephone calls, and other materials which the reader can not retrieve are not listed in the Reference page, they are cited within the text of the paper.

    Joe Smith (personal communication, January 10, 2003) confirmed the importance of marketing strategies.

    9. If you cite a corporate author, the author’s complete name must be listed in the reference. If a simple abbreviation is possible, include this in brackets. If you cite the same corporate author again, you may use the abbreviation in later parenthetical references.

    “In the 1890s most doctors learned through apprenticeships, and many did not attend medical school” (American Medical Association [AMA], 1993).

    All authors cited in the text of your paper must appear in your reference list.

    If you have any further questions, please consult a Reference Librarian.

    updated 2/16/2011